English Challenge 19

I.  Grammar Focus

A. Run-On Sentences – Link / Learnclick Quiz

Introduction

Before we can define a run-on sentence, we must first define a sentence, and before we can define a sentence, we must first define a clause.  It is assumed that you know what a subject and verb are, so this lesson won’t go lower than the clause level.

Clauses and Their Types

A clause is a group of words with a subject and a verb.

  • An independent clause expresses a complete thought. => John is a boy.  Jane is a girl.
  • A dependent clause expresses an incomplete thought. => When John arrived

Clauses can be joined together by (a) conjunctions or (b) relative pronouns.

Conjunctions

  • A coordinating conjunction is one of seven conjunctions that are capable of joining two independent clauses together. These seven coordinating conjunctions are for, and, nor, but, or, yet, and so.  They can be remembered by the acronym FANBOYS.
    => John is a boy, and Jane is a girl.
  • A subordinating conjunction is a word, typically an adverb, that can join a dependent clause to an independent clause. Some examples are:  although, even though, when, whenever, before, after, because, even if, as soon as, unless, until, while, if,  A dependent clause introduced by a subordinating conjunction is sometimes called a subordinate clause.

Relative Pronouns

  • The relative pronouns are primarily who/whose, which/that, what, where, why, when, and how. There are some other ones but these are the major ones.
    => John is the boy that Jane marriedJohn is the boy who married

Sentences and Their Types

Simple Sentences

A simple sentence consists of one and only one independent clause.  Thus, a sentence expresses a complete thought.

  • John is a boy.
  • Jane is a girl.
  • The fog is
  • He could not find his way home.

Compound Sentences

A compound sentence is formed when two or more independent clauses are joined by a coordinating conjunction (i.e., the FANBOYS conjunctions).

  • John is a boy, and Jane is a girl.
  • John is a boy, but Jane is a girl.
  • John is a boy, yet he acts just like Jane.

Note there is always a comma before the coordinating conjunction.  (a comma rule to know)

Complex Sentences

A complex sentence consists of at least one dependent clause and at least one independent clause.  In the sentence below, note that “When John came home” is an incomplete thought and is dependent on the remainder of the sentence to complete the thought with an independent thought (Jane was cooking dinner).

  • When John came home, Jane was cooking
  • Jane was cooking dinner when John came

Complex-Compound Sentences

A compound-complex sentence consists of at least one dependent clause and at least two dependent clauses.  => When the bell rang, the students all stood up, and then they left the classroom.

Sentence-Level Errors — When Sentences Go Bad…

Run-on Sentences (ROS)

Now we can define a run-on sentence.  A run-on sentence is a grammatically faulty sentence in which two or more main or independent clauses are joined improperly.  The following is an example of a run-on sentence:

Ex. 1:  The fog was thick he could not find his way home.

Note that Example 1 is actually two different sentences (independent thoughts or clauses).  There are three ways to fix a run-on sentence:

Ex. 1a:  The fog was thick.  He could not find his way home.  (split into two sentences)

Ex. 1b:  The fog was thick, so he could not find his way home.  (use FANBOYS conjunction)

Ex. 1c:  The fog was thick; he could not find his way home.  (use a semi-colon)

Comma Splices (CS)

A comma splice is a type of run-on sentence where a comma is used to join two or more independent clauses.  This is grammatically incorrect.  A comma cannot serve as a conjunction.

Ex. 2:  The fog was thick, he could not find his way home.  (comma splice; bad grammar)

Example 2 can be fixed in the same manner as Example 1:  split, FANBOYS, or semi-colon.

Sentence Fragment (SF)

A sentence fragment is only a piece of a sentence because it is missing a subject or verb.

  • Walked to school today. (no subject)
  • She at the store. (no verb)

Practice

(a) Classify each sentence by type of error (ROS, CS, SF)
(b) Correct the sentences using any of the three methods suggested.

  1. I have to go to the store I need to buy milk.
  2. We are going to the game, then we are going to dinner.
  3. Although he was tired he stayed up late he watched TV.
  4. I was hungry, went to buy food.
  5. Run-on sentences occur frequently among novice writers this is usually because the writer tries to create a detailed sentence and accidentally creates a run-on sentence.
  6. Finding run-on sentences can be tricky in order to find them a writer should identify his sentences with two independent clauses (subjects and verbs).
  7. Once identified the writer should decide if those sentences are properly joined that is do they have a comma and a conjunction does a semicolon or period need to be added
  8. Hope you are well, see you later take care.

Helpful Links

https://writingexplained.org/grammar-dictionary/run-on-sentence

https://www.gingersoftware.com/content/grammar-rules/conjunctions/subordinating-conjunctions/

http://grammar.yourdictionary.com/parts-of-speech/conjunctions/subordinating-conjunctions.html

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nX8N9RiGCZg

II.  Article

A. Don’t Tell Me What to Do – Link / Excerpt /

B. Excerpt to Read and Record

  1. When a person wants understanding, but their partner gives solutions, things do not usually go well. Both people can feel frustrated, teamwork can feel frayed, and disconnection can result. One can think, “Don’t tell me what to do!”  The other can think, “Why don’t you value my help?”
  2. Some say that this is the exact misunderstanding that led John Gray to write (the book) Men Are from Mars, Women Are from Venus. Gray saw women as usually wanting understanding, and men as usually offering problem-solving.  Many therapists have decried Gray’s lack of research basis for his claims about gender differences.  But recent research may have proved him right about this one.
  3. Psychologists Lorenzo, Barry, and Khalifian at the Universities of Maryland and Wyoming studied the differences between emotional support and informational support. They looked at which type of support a person preferred versus which type of support that person received.  They studied 114 newlywed couples, all of whom were male/female pairs in their first marriage. The emotional support questions included items such as “Said he/she thought I handled a situation well.” The informational support questions included, “Shared facts or information with me about a situation I was facing.”
  4. The first finding was that people who receive emotional support feel better and have higher relationship satisfaction.
    • That’s Principal 1 [sic]: Emotional support is good. Do it.
  5. Another finding was that wives wanted more support of all kinds than they received—both emotional and informational support. Husbands also wanted more emotional support than they received but were okay with the informational support they received.
    • That’s Principal 2 [sic]: Husbands, be more supportive overall. Wives, be more emotionally supportive.
  6. The next finding was subtle but quite important. Among the subset of husbands who preferred informational support, the more informational support they got, the better they felt.
  7. But among the subset of wives who do not prefer informational support, the more informational support they got, the worse they felt.
    • That’s Principal 3 [sic]: Husbands, do not assume that your wife is the same as you. If you prefer informational support, don’t assume that she does too.  She might have the opposite preference.  The kind of information that might make you feel better might make her feel worse.  Beware.
  8. The authors conclude: “Based on these findings, couples may be well-advised to provide emotional support to one another instead of informational support.” And when it comes to informational support, couples need to know the other’s preference.
  9. As a couples therapist, these findings make sense to me. I find this pattern again and again in my practice.  Typically, the woman wants support, the man gives advice, and both feel frustrated and disconnected.
    • Luckily the solution is simple—and it totally agrees with the study’s conclusion.
      Default to emotional support.  If you have no other information, give emotional support.
  10. Beyond that, ask for what you want, and check with your partner about what they want.  If you want your partner’s support about something, let them know whether you’re looking for understanding or advice.  Don’t make them guess.  Don’t wait to see what they do.  Tell them what you want.
  11. Honey, I’d like to vent about something. I’m not looking for advice. Could you just hear me out and try to understand?”
  12. Or, “Honey, I’d like to talk to you about a problem. Could you give me some advice about what you think I could do?
  13. Either is fine. Whatever you want. If your partner forgets to set things up like this, you, as the listener, can clarify.  “Would you like me to suggest solutions?  Or just understand your feelings?”  Say it out loud.  Make that choice explicit.  It’s so much easier.

C. Questions

  1. What do you think Gray’s book title is trying to say?
  2. What two kinds of support are mentioned in this article?
  3. What problem does this article discuss?
  4. What solution does it propose?
  5. Summarize the three principles and state his conclusion.
  6. Do you agree or disagree with the article’s conclusion?

D. Grammar

  1. In Paragraph 1, for the two sentences in gray highlight, identify all clauses by type (dependent, independent, relative) and identify the type of sentence (simple, compound, complex, complex-compound).
  2. In Paragraph 2, for the sentence in gray highlight, identify all clauses by type (dependent, independent, relative) and identify the type of sentence (simple, compound, complex, complex-compound).
  3. In Paragraph 3, for the sentence in gray highlight, identify all clauses by type (dependent, independent, relative) and identify the type of sentence (simple, compound, complex, complex-compound).
  4. In Paragraph 4, for the sentence in gray highlight, identify all clauses by type (dependent, independent, relative) and identify the type of sentence (simple, compound, complex, complex-compound).
  5. In Paragraph 5 for the sentence in gray highlight, identify all clauses by type (dependent, independent, relative) and identify the type of sentence (simple, compound, complex, complex-compound).
  6. In Paragraph 6, first sentence, why is there no comma before the “but”?
  7. In Paragraph 4, I’ve added a [sic]. Why?
  8. In Paragraph 9 for the sentence in gray highlight, identify all clauses by type (dependent, independent, relative) and identify the type of sentence (simple, compound, complex, complex-compound).
  9. In Paragraph 10 for the sentences in gray highlight, identify all clauses by type (dependent, independent, relative) and identify the type of sentence (simple, compound, complex, complex-compound).
  10. In Paragraph 12 for the sentence in gray highlight, identify all clauses by type (dependent, independent, relative) and identify the type of sentence (simple, compound, complex, complex-compound).
  11. In Paragraph 13, “Say it out loud.”Does this mean the same as “Say it.”?

III. Song

A. Piano Man – LinkLyrics & Questions /

B. Read and Record – Story

This song is about a night at a bar that offers live entertainment in the form of a piano player cum singer.  In this song, you will learn about several regular customers who patronize the bar.  They include Bill the piano man, a lonely old man, John the bartender, Paul the real estate novelist, Davy the sailor, the waitress, some businessmen, and the manager of the bar.  The rhythm and blues (R&B) of the piano man’s music captures the mood of the bar patrons, and they sway back forth to his music.  They put bread (money) in his tip jar to show their appreciation of his putting them in a mellow emood so they can enjoy their Saturday evening out drinking.  The piano man says that all the people in the bar have one thing in common.  They are all lonely and seeking solace in the presence of others like them.

C. Lyrics

  1. It’s nine o’clock on a Saturday. (9:00 pm)
  2. The regular crowd shuffles (come in slowly and randomly)
  3. There’s an old man sitting next to me
  4. Makin’ love to his tonic and gin. (has his arms wrapped around it, contemplating it)
  5. He says, “Son, can you play me a memory? (a nostalgic song from my past)
  6. I’m not really sure how it goes, (I can’t remember the words now)
  7. But it’s sad and it’s sweet, and I knew it complete (I had the whole song memorized)
  8. When I wore a younger man’s clothes.” (when I was a young man)
  9. La la la, di da da
  10. La la, di da da da dum
  11. Sing us a song; you’re the piano man.
  12. Sing us a song tonight.
  13. Well, we’re all in the mood for a melody.
  14. And you’ve got us feelin’ alright.
  15. Now John at the bar is a friend of mine.
  16. He gets me my drinks for free,
  17. And he’s quick with a joke or to light up your smoke, (smoke = cigarette)
  18. But there’s someplace that he’d rather be. (He really doesn’t want to be here doing this.)
  19. He says, “Bill, I believe this is killing me”,
  20. As the smile ran away from his face.
  21. “Well I’m sure that I could be a movie star
  22. If I could get out of this place.” (if I had an opportunity to go to Hollywood to act)
  23. Oh, la la la, di da da
  24. La la, di da da da dum
  25. Now Paul is a real estate novelist
  26. Who never had time for a wife, (too busy for romance)
  27. And he’s talkin’ with Davy, who’s still in the Navy, (always at sea; no time for women)
  28. And probably will be for life.
  29. And the waitress is practicing politics (trying to be tactful to rude, drunk patrons)
  30. As the businessmen slowly get stoned. (drunk, intoxicated)
  31. Yes, they’re sharing a drink they call loneliness,
  32. But it’s better than drinkin’ alone.
  33. Sing us a song; you’re the piano man.
  34. Sing us a song tonight.
  35. Well, we’re all in the mood for a melody.
  36. And you’ve got us feelin’ alright.
  37. It’s a pretty good crowd for a Saturday, (good business tonight)
  38. And the manager gives me a smile (makes the manager happy)
  39. ‘Cause he knows that it’s me they’ve been comin’ to see (the piano man is drawing in patrons)
  40. To forget about life for a while. (to forget about life’s worries for a while)
  41. And the piano, it sounds like a carnival, (circus)
  42. And the microphone smells like a beer, (foul smell)
  43. And they sit at the bar and put bread in my jar, (money in his tip jar; gratuities)
  44. And say, “Man, what are you doin’ here?” (You are too good to be here in this dump with us.)
  45. Oh, la la la, di da da
  46. La la, di da da da dum
  47. Sing us a song; you’re the piano man.
  48. Sing us a song tonight.
  49. Well, we’re all in the mood for a melody.
  50. And you’ve got us feelin’ alright.

D. Questions

  1. Line 01: Is this a sentence (S) or a sentence fragment (SF)?
  2. Lines 07-09: How many clauses are there in total?  (Ignore my parentheses explanations)
  3. Lines 20-22: How many clauses are there in total?  (Ignore my parentheses explanations)
  4. Lines 25-26: How many clauses are there in total?  (Ignore my parentheses explanations)
  5. Lines 31-34: (a) How many independent clauses are there in total?  (b) How many relative clauses are there in total?
  6. Lines 46-49: (a) How many sentences in total?  (b) How many coordinating conjunctions in total?  (c) How many clauses in total?
  7. In the song video, what happened between the waitress and her stoned businessmen?
  8. Why is the manager smiling tonight?
  9. List two at least two reasons why these patrons come to this bar.
  10. How does the crowd feel about the piano man? (at least two different aspects)
  11. How much does Bill have to pay John for his drinks?

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