Review of English Grammar
- Passive voice is used in three main cases: (a) when the doer is unknown, (b) when the doer is not important, or (c) when the doer is known but we wish to avoid blaming or embarrassing the doer by mentioning who he is.
- Eight verbs in passive tense: (a) were compelled/past, (b) will be withheld/future, (c) was launched/past, (d) are permitted/present, (e) were put/past, (f) is operated/present, (g) had been audited/past perfect, (h) were made up of/past
- The gray highlighted phrases are appositives.
- Modal verbs used in this article: (a) can cost, (b) would not be (I found only two)
- Two verbs in progressive tense: (a) is investigating, (b) are investigating, (c) are working
- Two verbs in present perfect tense: (a) has sold (I found only one)
- Two verbs in past perfect tense: (a) had not…applied, (b) had been audited, (c) had failed
- Two verbs in past tense: (a) said, (b) forced, (c) had (to do), (d) interviewed, (e) worked, (f) found, (g) violated, (h) told, (i) did not respond, (j) demanded, (k) noted, (l) was, (m) re-pieced
- Punctuation marks used within: apostrophe (‘), double quote marks (“), period (.), comma (,), parentheses ( ), dash (–), hyphen (-), colon (:)
- List two relative clauses: (a) (a practice) that rights groups say is widespread in China; (b) when they ramp up production; (c) which can cost up to $1,499; (d) that re-pieced together Apple Watches; (e) that had failed a quality check.
- Two noun clauses used as direct objects: (a) (said) the tech giant’s supplier forced student workers to work “like robots” to assemble its popular Apple Watch; (b) (said) they had not voluntarily applied to work there; (c) (said) they were put on the night shift working from 8pm to 8am with minimal breaks; (d) (noted) Quanta Chongqing was a new Apple supplier and had been audited three times; (e) (told SACOM) that student labor was widespread at the factory; (f) (demanded) that Apple investigate and bring the labor practices in line.
- Two coordinating conjunctions (FANBOYS): (a) SACOM interviewed…, and all of them said…; (b) internships are permitted…, but SACOM found…
- Two subordinating conjunctions: (a) after a labor rights group said…; (b) as manufacturers pair up with vocational schools; (c) when they ramp up production; (d) if we refuse to come; (e) since it was launched three years ago.
- Subjunctive mood: (a) demanded that Apple investigate and bring the labor practices in line…
- Five adjectives: a, southwest, labor rights, the tech, giant’s student, its, popular, their vocational, night, an, Hong-Kong-based, etc. (any word that describes a noun is an adjective)
- Five adverbs: voluntarily, literally, immediately, urgently, entirely
- Two phrasal verbs: to pair up, to ramp up, made up of
- Ten prepositions: in, like, according to, by, at, over, of, under, with, for, on, from, to, without
- Two possessive nouns: tech giant’s supplier, firm’s own policies, country’s labor law provisions.
- Use of double-quotes to indirect qualified meaning: “like robots”, “internships”
- One acronym: SACOM (say com)
- Passive voice agent using “by”: will be withheld by the school, is operated by Quanta Computer
- Five prepositional phrases to show locations: in southwest China, at the plant, in China, in factories, on the production lines, at the factory.
- Two infinitives: to work, to get, to do, to supply, to come, to do, to operate
- In “like robots”, “like” is serving as a preposition.