TED Talks: What rivers can tell us about the earth’s history



Lee Wright 9:00 PM

me 9:00 PM

Gerard Arbat 9:00 PM
and what about auburn?

Lee Wright 9:01 PM
Stereotype: A redhead (-ed woman) is a hothead, easy to lose her temper and get angry.
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Lee Wright 9:01 PM
Auburn = a reddish-brown hair color.
Auburn-colored hair
farming subsidies
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Lee Wright 9:08 PM
Rivers and our history
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Lee Wright 9:09 PM
Bashayer, can you summarize?

me 9:09 PM

Lee Wright 9:09 PM
Rivers can change their”course” over time.
course = route
Things change. Really?
How can we study history?
Written records
DIrt layers over time
Soil composition in different layers
Finding relics and fossils (bones)
The spread over an area of soil, rocks, plants
The presence or absence of water versus indications of water existence a long time ago.
Floods can create a new river course.
Rivers can flow, overflow or flood, can dry up, can get muddy, can sustain fish populations… (some verbs)
The Nile
longest in the world?

Gerard Arbat 9:15 PM
and the Amazon is the one with more water

Lee Wright 9:17 PM
Very famous – The Nile River

Thein Lin Aung 9:17 PM
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Lee Wright 9:17 PM
Pyramids were the tombs of the Pharoahs (leaders)

Thein Lin Aung 9:18 PM
Ganga river?

Lee Wright 9:18 PM
India – the Ganges River
Hot water from a volcano
Hot spring

Gerard Arbat 9:20 PM

Lee Wright 9:20 PM
Geyser if it shoots up out of the ground like a water fountain.
A river delta is VERY fertile for farming.
delta = triangular shape of land at the end of a river as it enters the ocean.

Gerard Arbat 9:22 PM
it’s a Greek letter too

Lee Wright 9:24 PM
Egypt (EE jipt)
Delta is a Greek letter that looks like a … triangle.

me 9:24 PM
2. Do you have sand mafias? Does your government have any laws against them?

Lee Wright 9:25 PM
“Sand Mafia”?
Stealing sand?
What is a sand Mafia?

Erosion = physical
Corrosion = chemical
WInd and water can erode mountains and land.
Sand is not pollution.
It just changes the water depth and course
dries up

Vasanth Prabakar 9:30 PM

Lee Wright 9:32 PM
Russia “forest mafia” – illegally cut down trees which dries up rivers…

Thein Lin Aung 9:32 PM
We have forest mafia too.
“Legal” mafias 😉

Lee Wright 9:32 PM
Forests retain water, so it enters the rivers slowly.
Deforestation = much water flowing into the river; spring floods but summer drying up
“Indian construction industry is currently valued at $126 Billion USD . The revenue of this industry is expected to go up at least three times by the end of this decade. This leads to a humongous demand in sand.”
In India river sand is called “red gold”.
USA calls oil “black gold”.

Thein Lin Aung 9:34 PM
Climate change?

me 9:35 PM
3. What are the pros/cons of the river changing its path?

Lee Wright 9:35 PM
Climate (CLY mut)
Rerouting a river on purpose to give small countries “turns of receiving water”? Strange.
Must drive the fish crazy!
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Lee Wright 9:38 PM
“India’s sand mafia uses poor farmers and scattered local middlemen to collect and distribute illegally mined sand while employing toughs to handle unwanted intrusions with intimidation and violence”
Building dams can change the landscape and affect the courses of rivers or even dry them up.

Vasanth Prabakar 9:40 PM

Gerard Arbat 9:41 PM

Lee Wright 9:41 PM
China’s Three-Gorge Dam
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Lee Wright 9:42 PM
Displaced over 1 million people.
Volga River in Russia
Hydro-electric station
(water power => electricity)
consequences were adverse

me 9:43 PM
1. What are the conditions of your rivers? Can you share any trivia about your country’s rivers?

Lee Wright 9:43 PM
Go, Nuclear!

Vasanth Prabakar 9:43 PM

Lee Wright 9:44 PM
In USA, the Mississippi River is one of our most famous ones.
India rivers are viewed as “women” (perhaps fickle, always changing the minds)
South America = Amazon River, piranha (meat-eating fish)
Rivers have a lot of history for villages and such.

Gerard Arbat 9:47 PM

Lee Wright 9:47 PM
River ecology affects fish populations which affects human populations.
Villages dump human waste directly into the river?
Feces contain bacteria that make spread disease if not controlled.
Chemical spills into the river
Rivers can be red or brown (from mud or dirt). Muddy.
Small island = islet, perhaps.
irrigate islands
In the USA, we have mangrove trees that like “brackish water”, where fresh river water and ocean salt water mix at the river’s delta.
a smaller branch of a river is called a tributary.
the mouth of the river is where the delta land forms
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Lee Wright 9:52 PM
dry river bed
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Gerard Arbat 9:53 PM

Lee Wright 9:53 PM
Rivers can erode surrounding land.
Niagara Falls
We say three kinds of water:
fresh water (rivers, lakes, springs)
salt water
Where rivers meet oceans – brackish water
Hot springs and geysers
Underground there is a water level or “water table”

Gerard Arbat 9:56 PM

Lee Wright 9:56 PM
creeks and streams in forests

Vasanth Prabakar 9:57 PM

Lee Wright 9:57 PM

me 9:57 PM
water mirror in Russian
75-100 meters deep in my place

Lee Wright 9:58 PM
dig wells
well water
Artesian well
we can divert river courses
Law of unforeseen consequences
irrigation channels
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Lee Wright 10:00 PM
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Lee Wright 10:00 PM
ancient Romans used aquaducts
Still ruins of Roman aquaducts
aqua/agua = water
aqua = Latin for water
aquatic animals, hippo
desalinization plant

Gerard Arbat 10:03 PM

Lee Wright 10:04 PM
water with minerals removed is called “distilled water”.

me 10:04 PM
we used that for car batteries only

Gerard Arbat 10:05 PM

Lee Wright 10:05 PM
“Mineral water” is presumably healthy.
Lime in the water
bad taste

Thein Lin Aung 10:05 PM
sour taste?

Lee Wright 10:06 PM
iron, scale,
scale is residue
messes up your pots and pans
vinegar can clean shower heads
and pots and pans

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